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Volume VI, Number 2, 2010

The Territory of the Tisa Catchment Area between Natural and Functional Organization
Pages 5-10

ABSTRACT – The TICAD project is in essence a symbiosis between what natural organization of the territory through the agency of catchment areas means and its anthropogenic organization having growth poles and gravity axes as pillars. The analysis highlights the historically-exemplified difficulties in correlating the two forms of organization and the factors that caused them. An increase of the index of spatial overlapping and functional imbrication between them can be noticed with the approach of lower hydrographic taxa (collectors, 1st to 3rd rank tributaries) and regional taxa (region, county, microregion, commune), a genuine identification often appearing for the basal ones. The new geopolitical circumstances, induced by the creation and enlargement of the European Union, represent a catalyst for the organisation of the Tisa river basin in the light of the new concepts of economic, cultural or environmental cross-border collaboration.

Keywords: river basin, Tisa, natural organisation, anthropogenic organisation, “lands”

Abiotic Typology of Surface Water Bodies in the Hydrographic Basin of the Arieş River
Pages 11-16

ABSTRACT – Monitoring according to the Water Frame Directive (2000/60/E.C.) guidelines demands the identification of river water bodies, typology, and investigation of reference conditions within each river basin. The identification of “water bodies”based on geographical and hydromorphological determinants is to enable the status to be accurately described and compared to environmental objectives of the Directive. A surface water body has to be a discrete element of surface water, which is not to overlap with each other or to be composed of elements of surface water that are not contiguous. Heavily modified water bodies may be identified and designated where good ecological status is not achieved because of impacts on the hydromorphological characteristics of surface water resulting from physical alterations. By applying the methodology described in the guidance document related to the WFD – Water Framework Directive, identification and designation of abiotic typology water bodies has led to a number of 32 types of water bodies related to streams and 18 types of water bodies related to natural lakes. Due to its position and its morphometric features, the Arieş Basin includes around 12 water body types (eight related to streams and four related to lakes). A detailed overview regarding the spatial distribution of these types is also exposed for inside analysis.

Keywords: Water Frame Directive, abiotic typology, water bodies, streams, lakes

Characteristics of Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change in the Romanian Tisa Catchment Area
Alexandru Ionuţ Petrişor, Georgiana Toth and Alina Chicoş
Pages 17-30

ABSTRACT – The article summarizes the analysis carried out in two European projects in progress on the Romanian territory of the Tisa Catchment Area and aims to identify areas vulnerable to climate change, and their socio-demographic characterization. In areas identified, the most exposed category of the population is elderly and the most affected economic activity is agriculture.

Keywords: Tisa Catchment Area, climate change, vulnerable areas, socio-demographic profile

Uniform Transnational Assessment of the Environmental Indices from the Romanian Catchment Area of the Tisa River
Pages 31-40

ABSTRACT – The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa has been structured according to the following categories of analysed indices: sources of surface waters, resources of drinkable water and water supply resources, the risk of not reaching the environmental objectives, significant sources of water pollution (punctual sources of pollution, diffuse sources of pollution, significant hydromorphic pressure), the quality of water, significant sources of air pollution, soils affected by agricultural and industrial activities, nature protection and waste management.

Keywords: environmental components, water sources, protected areas, waste management, territorial development, ecological risk

Features of the Built Patrimony and the Heritage of the “Lands” in the Romanian Tisa Basin
Pages 41-46

ABSTRACT – We realised this analysis, as a part of an international project, in order to underline the potential of this region for its appropriate territorial arrangement targeting touristic activities. In order to analyse the built patrimony in the Romanian Tisa Basin we considered relevant a regional synthesis where we analysed territorial units from two general perspectives (the spatial and the temporal one) revealed in a synthesis and a map which allowed us underline the significance of capitalising the built patrimony in this region where the rivers flowing into the Tisa ensured its unity. We started our study from the list for historical monuments of the counties with part of their territory or with the whole territory in the Romanian Tisa Basin. We revealed the importance of the built patrimony in the Romanian Tisa Basin and the spiritual heritage belonging to the twelve ethnographic units named “lands” in several possible directions of touristic capitalisation we mentioned at the end of our paper.

Keywords: historical monuments, spiritual heritage, regional development

The Analysis of Land Use Based on CORINE Land Cover in the Romanian Part of the Tisa Catchment Area
Pages 47-54

ABSTRACT – The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%), coniferous forests (6.22%), mixed forests (3.46%) and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%). The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50%) are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.

Keywords: land use, CORINE land cover, Tisa catchment area, forests, arable lands, grasslands

Economic Peculiarities of the Romanian Tisa River Basin
Sorin FILIP, Nicoleta DAVID, Ana-Maria POP and Lelia PAPP
Pages 55-68

ABSTRACT – A possible answer to the current challenges of the Tisa catchment area, correlated with water management, social and economic development, environmental conservation, is the transnational initiative of the five countries drained by the tributaries of the Tisa River. In this context, the spatial development has a major impact on the Romanian Tisa catchment area by providing the economic cohesion. The purpose of the present paper is to define the current status of economy in the Romanian Tisa River Basin, through the filter of achieving the level of competitiveness claimed by the national, European, or global authorities. By setting several quantitative indicators, analyzed for a standard territorial level (NUTS 3), for a definite time interval (2002-2007), those more or less competitive economic branches, activities or aspects of the analyzed territory were identified, and, at the same time, the elements that “hinder” development, the traditional remnants, or the existing entrepreneurial initiatives. On the basis of relevant indicators, the calculation of an index of competitiveness was proposed at territorial level, the results certifying a certain level of competitiveness for the region under consideration.

Keywords: competitiveness, economic development, index of competitiveness, Romanian Tisa River Basin, Lisbon Strategy

The Incentive Components of the Tourist Offer from the Romanian Tisa Basin – Major Markers of the Regional Tourist Development Strategy
Pages 69-82

ABSTRACT – This paper makes a thoroughly analysis of the main factors which stimulate and define the tourism in the Tisa River basin in concerning both the primary touristic offer (the natural and the anthropic frame) and the infra-structural components, in order to identify the main opportunities of tourism development that are to be found as well as to prefigure the direction of this field’s development, which points out a real potential from this point of view. Consequently, after a preliminary identification of the whole range of tourist resources that are implied or can be implied in making the attractive endowment of the analysed region, we establish the main planning priorities, so that – on this basis – to indicate the main types of tourism and the possible tourist arrangements whose practising and, respectively, achievement, would permit the plenary integration of the Tisa River basin into the regional, national, and international tourist circuits.

Keywords: tourist resources, tourism prospective research, attractiveness, assessment, tourist arrangements, types and forms of tourism, strategic coordinates, development strategies

The Role of Hydrotechnical Facilities in Flood Protection – Case Study: the Upper Basin and the Corridor of the Someşul Mic River
Pages 83-90

ABSTRACT – The complex management of the catchment area proved to be the only effective way to cope with the extreme hydrologic phenomena and their effects. The watercourses controlled by artificial lakes have a quasi-total protection, water-flooding volumes being often fully retained in the man-made water accumulations. Therefore, both the Someşul Cald Valley and the Someşul Mic stream sector, downstream of Gilău have been protected from flooding, except for several outbursts of side tributaries of the Someşul Mic, with low socio-economic losses. In addition, the watercourses controlled by small dams with water adduction pipes have a minimal effect on maximum flow and especially during flooding periods. In the past, violent effects on the Someşul Rece catchment area were recorded in its meadow sector and in the locality bearing the same name, expressed by the destruction of several civilian targets and of the road that accompanies the river.

Keywords: hydrotechnical facilities, artificial lake, water intake, water adduction pipe, flood

Energetic Equipment in the Romanian Tisa Catchment Area
Pages 91-96

ABSTRACT – The article presents the context of energetic equipment in the TICAD area, traditional and alternative sources of energy, and includes a short presentation and the possibilities of use for each of them.

Keywords: electricity transmission networks, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind energy, biomass